In the feature story folk elements such as proverbs and sayings, can perform a variety of functions: they can serve as a means of characterization of the hero, it means the author's assessment of classification, an expression of social relations in society, moral maxim that expresses the author's attitude towards the hero, to the story line.

We have found in the novel "The Prince of Silver" 75 paremiological units.Almost all the proverbs and sayings literally correspond to the folk variants recorded in the dictionary VI Dahl. A few exceptions. Tolstoy deliberately changes the adage "there is safety in numbers." Boris Godunov Silver says: "One is a governor» [II, 279]. Without changing the meaning of the expression, the author's different accents: it shows that the influential nobles, distinguished governor can not resist despotism Grozny because of their disorganization, disunity. Another proverb exposed author's corrections: instead of "case makes perfect" in the novel, we see the "night deal makes perfect» [II, 381], which is the mark of a social group (we are talking about robbers, who in the novel, again according to folk tradition, called "outlaws"). Proverb, recorded Dahl as "hair is long, but the mind is short» [II, 247], in Tolstoy turns to the expression "his beard is long, but the mind is short." By saying that "hunger is not an aunt, not his belly basket» [II, 329] is only "hunger is not my aunt." The three of us met in the novel proverbs are used twice, but then again in a different context, they are each time different architectonic, conceptual and emotional stress. Take, for example, proverbs, "abide in - together." It performs the function of motivoobrazuyuschuyu by entering into an artistic space of the novel motif of marriage with the unloved. The first time she says Morozov Militia in conversation with Elena Dmitrievna, suggesting that the girl's heart may eventually respond to the love Viazemsky [ II, 201]. But it is clear to the reader that this is an attempt to fall in love with Elena Morozova.

Saturating it character-commoners folk proverbs, Tolstoy shows that it is common - a treasure trove of traditional thought, the national language of art. As part of the speech characteristics of the characters used an abundance of common parlance.
Less frequent, but are also found in the speech of Nikita paremias Silver, Yound Morozov, Maxim Skuratova. These characters are not used proverbs witticism that it blossom speech, and carry ideological meaning. A lot of people's expressions in the speech of Ivan the Terrible. This is due to the fact that Ivan IV had always wanted to be known as the king of close and accessible to the people. However, many proverbs and sayings in his mouth distort its meaning. Saying "let bygones be bygones" [ II, 487] takes an ironic color, as in the course of the novel has been noted, resentment of the king. In the same episode Embassy Ermak Ivan the Terrible says Mitya and rings and their misdeeds, though it's been 17 years. Other proverbs reflect a sinister meaning the reign of Ivan the Terrible, his ideology, "And I would have eaten, but the tooth can not catch it" [II, 242], "Fledglings head - not put" [ II, 248].

Summarizing the analysis of the use of Russian proverbs in the works AK Tolstoy, the following conclusions. Paremias in the works of the writer, as in folklore and perform the functions of:
• institutional (assert the rule of law in society) - "good turn deserves another" [22, II, 190];
• social control (praised for good deeds condemn the bad behavior) - "Women's faithfulness - a tower tall oak door so the bars of iron" [22, II, 290];
• psychological (comfort in a difficult situation) - "The Heart of a girl's wax: can endure, slyubitsya!" [II, 201].
However, getting into the literary text, they take on added importance. Paremias in the works of Tolstoy's artistic fabric can perform a variety of stylistic features: ethnographic, marking, expressive, feature a character, plot-. Since proverbs are a generalization of the wisdom of the people, then the use of their author in the artistic fabric of the work over the borders of the author assumes the character of subjectivity and generalizations in the prevailing national moral and ethical principles.

Tolstoy, AK Coll. Op.: 4 volumes - Moscow, 1969. - Volume 2